A fallacy is, generally, incorrect reasoning in argumentation; when the premises of an argument do not support the conclusion. Fallacies may be created unintentionally, or intentionally in order to deceive other people.
A formal fallacy is a pattern of reasoning that is always wrong due to a flaw in the logical structure of the argument which renders the argument invalid.
An argument whose stated premises fail to support their proposed conclusion. The error has to do with issues of inference.
Why Study Fallacies?
People make mistakes in their reasoning. In order to be able to spot invalid arguments, you need to know how to identify incorrect reasoning. And, to be able to refute invalid arguments, you need to understand why they are wrong.
List of Fallacies
• Ignoratio Elenchi
• Poisoning the Well
• Red Herring
• Tu Quoque
• Two Wrongs Make a Right